VX-6 has its roots in "Operation High Jump", the fourth Antarctic Expedition conducted by Rear Admiral (USN) Richard Byrd. In December 1946, this expedition, involving sea-based Martin PBMs and land-based Douglas R4Ds, set out to conduct an extensive aerial survey of Antarctica. Based in the Ross Sea ice pack, they eventually mapped about 1.5 million square miles of the interior and 5,500 miles of coastline.

Established as Air Development Squadron SIX (VX-6) at Naval Air Station (NAS), Patuxent River, Maryland on 17 January 1955, the squadron's mission was to conduct operations in support of U. S. Department of Defense responsibilities in connection with the United States Antarctic Program. That first season, VX-6 completed nine long range exploratory flights, and transported people and materials necessary for the construction of Little America Base Camp, the Naval Air Operations Facility on Hut Point (Ross Island) and South Pole Station, and assisted in the location of four other base sites on the continent. Following ifs return from DEEP FREEZE I in February, 1956, VX-6 was relocated to NAS Quonset Point, Rhode Island (this was also the home of Naval Construction Battalion 200, which had been formed to do the construction of facilities in the Antarctic). VX-6 made its first deployment, DEEP FREEZE 1, in November 1955, as part of "Task Force 43". In January 1969, VX-6 was re-designated as Antarctic Development Squadron SIX (VXE-6). Since it's establishment, VX-6 has logged more than two hundred thousand flight hours in direct support of United States' interests in the Antarctic. To date, the squadron has transported more than 195 thousand passengers, delivered over 240 million pounds of dry cargo and nearly 10 million gallons of fuel to numerous sites throughout the continent.
Noel Gillespie